Compared with many major cities in the world, Moscow, which was mainly developed in the former Soviet Union, has taken a special development path, with the distinctive characteristics of pre-planned construction and strong government promotion. There are some profound lessons. The enlightenment for Beijing’s development is: Strengthen the scientificity, seriousness and authority of the capital city planning; establish the concept of “people-centered” urban development; systematically optimize the urban spatial layout structure; promote the comprehensive and coordinated development of Beijing and surrounding areas; improve the scientific and refined urban management level.
Moscow is the capital of Russia and the center of Russia’s politics, economy, culture, education, and technology. Compared with other large cities in the world, Moscow has grown into a mega-city and has gone through a special development path. Moscow, which has long been the capital, has made remarkable achievements in urban development and governance, but there are also many problems. There are some profound lessons that are worth thinking about and learning from. For Visa to Russia and Russian invitation, visit Visa Express.
Moscow’s special urban development path
Moscow was founded in the middle of the 12th century and became the capital of the Principality of Moscow in the early 13th century. After becoming the capital of the unified Russia in the mid-15th century, it has always been the capital of Russia. Only in 1712, in order to make Russia expand from a landlocked country into a European power on the edge of the sea, and to break the restrictions of Moscow’s old power, including religious power, Peter the Great moved the capital of Tsarist Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg. The development of Moscow was affected to a certain extent, but still Playing the role of the second capital of Russia, it is still the center of the Orthodox Church, and it also has strong industrial and trade functions. In 1918, in response to the German army’s security threat to Petrograd (St. Petersburg), the new Soviet government moved its capital from Petrograd to Moscow. In 1922, Moscow officially became the capital of the former Soviet Union.
Although Moscow was established earlier and has the natural, geographical and transportation advantages to grow into a mega-city, the development of Moscow has been relatively slow for a long period of time. Until 1920, Moscow was still relatively backward. In traditional cities, the industrial foundation is very weak, and the urban population is only about 1 million. In fact, Moscow’s growth into a mega-city was mainly realized during the former Soviet Union. Under the socialist system, the party and government of the former Soviet Union are eager to “build socialism and the world’s first capital of the proletariat” and “make Moscow a model city for communism.” Under the strong promotion of the national plan, the city of Moscow developed rapidly. By the eve of World War II, it had been initially built as a modern industrial city. By the end of 1980, Moscow had developed into a world-class megacity with a population of over 10 million.
Compared with capitals such as New York, Tokyo, London, etc., developed under the dominance of market mechanisms in many Western countries, Moscow, which was mainly developed in the former Soviet Union, has taken a special development path. Urban development involves pre-planned construction and strong government forces. Distinctive characteristics of promotion. The reason for adopting this development model is not only determined by the social and economic system of the former Soviet Union, but also because it hopes to change Moscow’s previous slow development path dominated by spontaneity, and at the same time avoid the disadvantages of blind and disorderly expansion of large Western cities, and achieve a planned and organized city. Order development. Under the highly centralized planned economic system, the urbanization led by the government did promote the rapid growth of Moscow in the short term, but this kind of urban expansion was mainly based on the design of socialist ideology and national grand goals, and relatively ignored the urban industry and commerce. The inherent demand for development and improvement of the human settlement environment has many shortcomings in urban function positioning, spatial layout, industrial structure, and urban governance. This has led to the exposure of common problems in large cities, such as traffic congestion, environmental degradation, and population. Excessive agglomeration has also restricted Moscow’s goal of becoming a higher-level world-class city. Especially after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moscow, as the capital of the Russian Federation and Russia’s only city with a population of more than tens of millions, is actively advancing towards the goals of a world-class modern city and an international financial center. The impact of the governance mechanism is far-reaching, so the goal of promoting the healthy development of the city and moving to a higher level is still a long way to go.